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Management Chapters 13 - 19

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Chapter 13  
   
Behavior The actions of people
Organizational Behavior The study of the actions of people at work
attitudes Evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events
Cognitive component of an attitude The beliefs, opinions, knowledge or information held by a person
affective components of an attitude the emotion or feeling segment of an attitude
Behavioral component of an attitude An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Job satisfaction A person's general attitude toward his or her job
Job Involvement The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her hob performance important to his or her self-worth.
Organizational commitment An employee's orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and involvement in the organization.
Attitude surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or the organization
Personality A combination of psychological traits that describes a person
Big-Five Model Five-factor model of personality that includes extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
Focus of control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate
Machiavellianism A measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends can justify means
Self-esteem An individual's degree of like or dislike for himself or herself
Self-monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors
Perception The process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment
Attribution theory A theory used to develop explanations of how be judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior
Fundamental attribution error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Self-serving bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Selectivity The process by which people assimilate certain bits and pieces of what they observe, depending on their interests, background, and attitudes
Assumed similarity The belief that others are like oneself
Stereotyping Judging a person on the basis of one's perception of a group to which he or she belongs
Halo effect A general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic
Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
Operant conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment
Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response
   
   
Chapter 14  
   
Group Two or more INTERACTING AND INTERDEPENDENT individuals who come together to achieve PARTICULAR OBJECTIVES
Forming The first stage in group development, during which people join the group and the define the group's purpose, structure, and leadership; characterized by uncertainty
storming The second stage of group development, characterized by intragroup conflict
Norming The third stage of group development, characterized by close relationships an cohesiveness
Performing The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional
Adjourning The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
Role A set of behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit
Norms Acceptable standard shared by a group's members
Status A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group
Free rider tendency The reduction of effort that individual members contribute to the group as it increases in size
Group cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to one another and share the group's goals
Conflict Perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition
Traditional view of conflict The view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided
Human relations view of conflict The view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group
Interactions view of conflict The view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively
Functional conflicts Conflicts that support a group's goals
Dysfunctional conflicts Conflicts that prevent a group from achieving it's goals
Avoidance Withdrawal from or suppression of conflict
Accommodation Resolving conflicts by placing another's needs and concerns above one's own
forcing Satisfying one's own needs at the expense of another's
Compromise A solution to conflict in which each party gives up something of value
Collaboration Resolving conflict by seeking a solution advantageous to all parties
Informal communication Communication that exists outside the organization's formally authorized communication channels
Grapevine The informal communication network
Groupthink The withholding by group members of different views in order to appear in agreement
Brainstorming An idea-generating process that encourages alternatives while withholding criticism
nominal group techniques A group decision-making techniques in which group members are physically present but operate independently
Delphi Technique A group decision-making technique in which members never meet face to face
Electronic meetings Decision-making groups that interact by using linked computers
Work teams Formal groups made up of interdependent individuals, responsible for the attainment of a goal
Functional Team A type of work team that is composed of a manager and his or her subordinates from a particular functional area
Self-directed or self-managed team A type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an external or internal customer
Cross-functional team A type of work team in which individuals who are experts in various specialties f(or functions) work together on various organizational l tasks
Gainsharing A group incentive program that shares the gains of the efforts of group members with those group members
Quality circles Work groups that meet regularly to discuss, investigate, and correct quality problems
   
   
Chapter 15  
   
Motivation The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
Need An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive
Three-needs theory The needs for achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work
Need for achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Motivation The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals as conditioned by that effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
Hierarchy of needs theory Maslow's theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next becomes dominant
Physiological needs Basic food, drink, shelter, and sexual needs
Safety needs A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Social needs A person's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
Esteem needs Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention
self-actualization needs A person's drive to become what he or she is capable of becoming
Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Theory Y The assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
Motivation-hygiene theory The theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
hygiene factors Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction
Motivators Factors that increase job satisfaction
Goal -setting Theory The proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than easy goals.
Reinforcement theory Behavior is a function of its consequences
Reinforcer Any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated
Job Design The way tasks are combined to form complete jobs
Job Scope The number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated
Job enlargement The horizontal expansion of a job; an increase in job scope
Job enrichment Vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities
Job depth The degree of control employees have over their work
Job characteristics model (JCM A framework for analyzing and designing jobs; identifies five primary job characteristics, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcome variables
Skill variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents
Task identity The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task significance The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people
Autonomy The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to an individual in scheduling and carrying out his/her work
Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in an individual's obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance
Equity theory The theory that an employee compares his job's inputs-outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity
referents The person's systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity
Expectancy theory The theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
compressed workwee A workweek consisting of fou 10-hour days
Flexible work hours (Flextime) A scheduling system in which employees are required to work a certain number of hours a week, but are free, withing limits, to vary the hours of work
Job sharing The practice of having two or more prople split a 40-hour-a-week job
Telecommuting The linking by computer and modem of workers at home with co-workers and management at an office
Pay-for-performance programs Compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure
Open-book management A motivational approach in which an orgainization's financial statements (the books) are opened to and shared with all employees
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) A compensation program in which employees become part owners of the orgainization by receiving stock as a performance incentive
   
   
Chapter 16  
   
Leaders Persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority
Leadership The abiliyt to influence a group toward the achievement of goals
Fiedler contingency model `The thoery that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader
Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionaire A questionnaire that measures whether a person is task or relationship oriented
Leader-member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader
Task structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized
Position power The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases
Path-goal theory The theory that a leader's behavior is acceptable to subordinates insofar as they view it as a source of either immediate or future satisfaction
Leader participation model A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amout of participative decision making in different situations
Attribution theory of leadership Proposes that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals
Charismatic leadership Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
Visioonary leadership The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an orgainization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves upon the present
Transactiona leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clrifying role and task requirements
Transformational leaders Leaders who provide individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and possess charisma
Power The capacity of a leader to influence work actions or decisions
Legitimate Power The power a person has as a result of his or her position in the formal orgainizational hierarchy; also called authority
Coercive power Power that rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain; the arousal of frustration through restriction of movement; or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs
Reward power Power that produces positive benefits or reward
Expert power Influence that results from expertise, special skill, or knowledge
Referent power Power that arises from identification with a person who has dwsirable resources or personal traits
Credibility The degree to which followers perceive someone as honest, competent, and able to inspire
Trust The belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader
   
   
Chapter 17  
   
Control The process of monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations
Market control An approach to designing control systems that emphasizes the use of external market mechanisms to establish the standards used in the control system
Bureaucratic Control An approach to designing control systems that emphasizes orgainizational authority and relies on administrative rules, regulations, procedures, policies, standardization of activities, and other administrative mechanisms to ensure that employees exhibit a
Clan control An apprach to designing control systems in which employee behaviors are regulated by the shared vcalues, norms, traditions, rituals, beliefs, and other aspects of the organization's culture
Control process The process of measuring actual performance, comparing it against a standard, and taking managerial action to correct deviations or inadequate standards
Range of variation The acceptable parameters of variance between actual performance and the standard
Immediate corrective action Correcting an activity at once in order to get performance back on track
Basic corrective action Determining how and why performance has deviated and correcting the source of deviation
Feedforward control Control that prevents anticipated problems
Concurrent control Control that occurs while an activity is in progress
Feedback control Control imposed after an action has occurred
Management by walking around (MBWA) A control technique in which the manager is out in the work areak, interacting directly with employees and exchanging information
   
   
Chapter 18  
   
Operations Mangement The sesign, operation, and control of the transformation process that converts resources into finished goods and services
Productivity The overal output of goods and services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output
Manufacturing orgainizations Orgainizations that produce physical goods such as steel, automobiles, textiles, and farm machinery
Service orgainizations Orgainizations that produce nonphysical outputs such as educational, medical, and transportation services that are intangible, cannot be stored in inventory, and incorporate the customer or client into the actual procuction process
Deindustrialization The conversion of an economy from dominance by manufacturing to dominance by service-oriented businesses
Customer-driven operations system An operations system that is designed around meeting and exceeding customers' needs
Capacity Plannign Assessing an operating system's ability to produce a desired number of output units for each type of product during a given time period
Facilities location planning The design and location of an operations facility
Process planning Determining how a product or service will be produced
Facilities layout planning Accessing and selecting amoung alternative layout options for equipment and work stations
Process layout Arranging manufacturing components together according to similarity of function
Product layout Arranging manufacturing components according to the profressive steps by which a product is made
Fixed-position layout A manufacturing layout in which the product stays in place while tools, equipment, and human skills are brought to it
Aggregate planning Planning overall production activities and their associated operating resources
Master schedule A schedule that specifies quantity and type of items to be produced; hoe, when, and where they should be produced; labor force levels; and inventory
Material requirments planning (MRP) A system that dissects products into the material and parts necessary for purchasing, inventorying, and priority planning purposes
Cost center A unit in which managers are held responsible for all associated costs
Direct costs Costs incurred in proportion to the output of a particular good or service
Indirect costs Costs that are largely unaffected by changes in output
Fixed-point reordering system A system that flags the fact that inventory needs to be relenished when it reaches a certain level
Fixed-interval reordering system A system that uses time as the determining factor for reviewing and reordering inventory items
Preventative maintenance Maintenance performed before a breakdown occurs
remedial maintenance Maintenance that calls for the overhaul, replacement, or repair of equiment when it breaks down
Conditional maintenance Maintenance that calls for an overhaul or repair in response to an inspection
Acceptance sampling A quality control procedure in which a sample is taken and a decision to accept or reject a complete lot is based on a calculation of sample risk error
Process control A quality control procedure in which sampling is done during the transformation process to determine whether the process itself is under control
Attribute sampling A quality control technique that classifies items as acceptable or unacceptable on the basis of a comparison with a standard
Variable sampling A quality control technique in which a measurement is taken to determine how much an item varies from the standard
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Combines the organization's strategic business plan and manufacturing plan with state-of-the-art computer applications
ISO 9000 Quality management standards established by the International Orgainization of Standardization adhered to by companies around the world
Just-in-time (JIT) inventory system A system in which items arrive in iventory just when they are needed in production rather than geing stored in stock
Kanban The japanese term for JIT systems
Flexible manufacturing system Systems in which custom-made products can be mass-produced by means of computer-aided design, engineering, and manufacturing
   
   
Chapter 19  
   
Mangement Information system (MIS) A system that provides management with needed information on a regular basis
Data Raw, unanalyzed facts
Information Analyzed and processed data
Control chart A mamangement control tool that shows results of measurements overa period of time, with statistically determined upper and lower limits
Economic order quantity model (EOQ) A technique for balancing purchase, ordering, carrying, and stockout costs to derive the optimal quantity for a purchase order
Performance appraisal The evaluation of an individual's work performance in order to arrive at objective personnel decisions
Written essay A performance appraisal technique in which an evaluator writes out a description of an employee's strengths, weeknesses, past perfromance, and potential, and then makes suggestions for improvement
Critical incidents A performance appraisal technique in which an evaluator lists key behaviors that separate effective from ineffective job performance
Graphic rating scales A performance appraisal technique in which an evaluator rates a set of performance factors on an incremental scale
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) A performance appraisal technique in which an evaluator rates employees on specific job behaviors derived from performance dimensions
Multiperson comparisons A perfromance appraisal technique in which individuals are compared
Group order ranking A performance appraisal approach that groups employees into ordered classification
Individual ranking A perfromance appraisal approach that ranks employees in order from highest to lowest
Paired comparison A performance appraisal apprach in which each employee is compared with every other employee and rated as either the superior ot weaker member of the pair
360 degree feedback A performance appraisal review that utilizes feedback from supervisors, subordinaates, and co-workers - the full circle of people with whome the manager interacts
Discipline Actions taken by a manager to enforce tha organization's standards and regulations
Hot stove rule Discipline should immediately follow an infraction, provide ample warning, and be consistent and impersonal
Employee assistance programs (EAPs) Company-sponsored programs whose goal is to help employees adjust to and overcome personal problems that are adversely affecting their workplace perfromance

Last Updated on 03/20/00
By Maria Ribaulo
Email: marbaulo@aol.com

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