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Management Chapters 1 - 6

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Chapter 1  
Organization A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose
Manager an organizational member who integrates and coordinates the work of others
First-line managers Supervisors; the lowest level of management
Middle Managers All levels of management between the supervisory level and the top level of the organization
Top Managers Managers at or near the top of the organization who are responsible for making organization-wide
  decisions and establishing the policies and strategies that affect the entire organization
Management The process of coordinating and integrating work activities so that they're completed efficiently
  and effectively with and through other people
Efficiency DOING THINGS RIGHT Decisions and establishing the policies and strategies that affect the entire organization
Effectiveness DOING THE RIGHT THING Goal Attainment
Management functions Managers work activities of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Planning Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities
Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made
Leading Includes Motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts
Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviation
Management Process The set of ongoing decisions and actions in which managers engage as they plan organize, lead, and control.
Management Roles Specific categories of managerial behavior
Impersonal Roles Roles that involve figurehead, leader, and liaison activities
Informational roles Roles that involve monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson activities
Decisional roles Roles that involve entrepreneur, disturbances handler, resource allocator, and negotiator
Technical skills Skills that include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field
Human skills The ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group
Conceptual skills The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract situations, to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among it's various subunits, and to visualize how the organization fits into its environment
System A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole
Closed systems Systems that are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment
Open Systems Systems that dynamically interact with their environment
Contingency perspective A view that the organization recognizes and responds to situational variables as they arise
Small business An independently owned and operated profit-seeking enterprise having fewer than 500 employees
Entrepreneurship a process by which people pursue opportunities, fulfilling needs and wants through innovation, without regard to the resources they currently control
Chapter 2  
Division of Labor The breakdown of jobs into narrow, repetitive tasks
Industrial Revolution The advent of machine power, mass production, and efficient transportation
Classical Theorists The term used to describe early management theorists whose writings established the framework for many of our contemporary ideas on management and organization
Scientific management The use of the scientific method to define the "one best way" for a job to be done
Therbligs a classification scheme for labeling seventeen basic hand motions
General administrative theorists Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice.
Principles of management Universal truths of management that can be taught in schools
Bureaucracy A form of organization marked by division of labor, hierarchy, rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships
Organizational behavior A field of study concerned with the actions (behavior) of people at work BEHAVIOR APPROACH
  HUGO MUNSTERBERG - THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES AT WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY WORKS
Motivation the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals as conditioned by that effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
Hierarchy of needs theory Maslow's theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety, social esteem, and self-actualization. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next becomes dominant
Physiological need Basic food, drink, shelter, and sexual needs
Safety need A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Social needs A person's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
Esteem need Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
Self-actualization needs A person's drive to become what he or she is capable of becoming
Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Theory Y The assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and exercise self-direction
Motivation-hygiene theory The theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
hygiene factors Factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction
Motivators Factors that increase job satisfaction
Leadership an influence process in which individuals, by their actions, facilitate the movement of a group toward a common or shared goal
Behavioral theories Leadership theories identifying behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders
autocratic style describes a leader who typically tends to centralize authority, dictate work methods, make unilateral decisions, and limit subordinate participation.
Democratic style Describes a leader who tends to involve subordinates in decision making, delegate authority, encourage participation in deciding work methods, and use feedback as an opportunity for coaching
Laissez-faire style Describes a leader who generally gives the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it sees fit
Initiating structure The extent to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of subordinates to attain goals
Consideration The extent to which a person has job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates' ideas, and regard for their feelings
High-high leader a leader high in both initiating structure and consideration
Managerial grid A two-dimensional portrayal of leadership based on concern for people and concern for production.
Workforce diversity Employees in organizations are heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, or other characteristics
Learning organization an organization that has developed the capacity to continuously adapt and change
Reengineering a radical redesign of all or part of a company's work process to improve productivity and financial performance
TQM Total Quality Management a philosophy of management that is driven by customer needs and expectations and focuses on continual improvement in work processes
Downsizing organizational restructuring efforts in which individuals are laid off from their jobs
Contingent workers non permanent workers including temporaries, part-timers, consultants, free-lancers, and contract worker
Empowerment Increasing the decision-making discretion of workers
Psychological contracts The unwritten commitments and perceived obligations between workers and employers
Chapter 3  
Omnipotent view of management The view that managers are directly responsible for an organizations success or failure
Symbolic view of management The view that managers have only a limited effect on substantive organizational outcomes because of the large number of factors outside of management's control
IN REALITY MANAGERS ARE NEITHER HELPLESS NOR ALL POWERFUL
Organizational culture A system of shared meaning within an organization that determines, in large degree, how employees act THE PERSONALITY OF THE ORGANIZATION. HOW THEY MAKE SENSE OF THINGS
Strong Cultures Organizations in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared STABLE IDENTITY
How to learn culture STORIES, RITUALS, MATERIAL SYMBOLS (LOGOS, ETC), LANGUAGE
Environment Outside institutions or forces that potentially affect an organization's performance
General Environment Everything outside the environment
Specific environment The part of the environment that is directly relevant to the achievement of an organization's goals
Environmental Complexity The number of components in an organization's environment and the extent of an organization's knowledge about its environmental components.
Intranets Internal organizational communication systems that use internet technology and are accessible only by employees
Chapter 4  
Parochialism A narrow view of the world; an inability to recognize differences between people
Polycentric attitude The view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their operations
Geocentric attitude A world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe
European Union (EU) A union of 15 European nations created to eliminate national barriers to travel, employment, investment, and trade
NAFTA An agreement among the Mexican, Canadian, and US gov'ts in which all barriers to free trade will eventually be eliminated
ASIAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations A trading alliance of ten Southeast Asian nations
Multinational Corporation (MNC) A company that maintains significant operations in more than one country simultaneously by manages them all from one base in a home country
Transnational Corporation A company that maintains significant operations in more than one country simultaneously and decentralizes decision making in each operation to the local country
Borderless organization A global type of organization in which artificial geographical barriers are eliminated so that the management structure can be more effectively globalized
National Culture The attitudes and perspectives shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and the way they see the world
Individualism A cultural dimension in which people are supposed to look after their own interests and those of their immediate family
Collectivism A cultural dimension in which people expect others in their group to look after them and to protect them when they are in trouble
Power distance A cultural measure of the extent to which a society accepts the unequal distribution of power in institutions and organizations
Uncertainty avoidance A cultural measure of the degree to which people tolerate risk and unconventional behavior
Quantity of Life a national culture attribute describing the extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism
Quality of Life A national culture attribute that reflects the emphasis placed upon relationships and concern for others
Culture shock the feelings of confusion, disorientation, and emotional upheaval caused by being immersed in a new culture
Organizational socialization The process that employees go through to adapt to an organization's culture
Classical View The view that management's only socail responsibility is to maximize profits
Sociaoeconomic view The view that management's social responsibility goes well beyond the making of profits to include protecting and improving society's welfare
Social Respnsibility An obligation, beyond that required by the law and economics, for a firm to pursue long-term goals that are good for society
Social obligation the obligation of a business to meet its economic and legal responsibilities
Social responsiveness The capacity of a firm to adapt to changing societal conditions
Values-based management An approach to managing in which managers establish, promote, and practice and organization's shared values
Shades of Green An organization's level of environmental sensitivities
Utilitarian view of ethics Decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences.
Rights view of ethics Decisions are concerned with respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals
Theory of Justice View of Ethics Decision makers seek to impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially
Integrative social contracts theory A view that proposes that decisions should be made on the basis of empirical (what is) and normative (what should be) factors
Values Basic convictions about what is right and wrong
Ego Strength A personality characteristic that measures the strength of a person's convictions
Locus of Control A personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.
CHAPTER 6  
Decision A choice made from two or more alternatives
Decision-making process A set of eight steps that include identifying a problem, selecting an alternative, and evaluating the decision's effectiveness
Problem A discrepancy between an existing and desired state of affairs
  SALES ARE DOWN - SYMPTOM, NOT THE PROBLEM
Decision criteria Criteria that define what is relevant in a decision
Implementation Conveying a decision to those affected and getting their commitment to it
Rational Describes choices that are consistant and value-maximizing within specified constraints
Bounded rationality Behavior that is rational within the parameters of a simplified model that captures the essential features of a problem
Satisficing A word that the authors made up and say it means: Acceptance of solutions that are "good enough"
Intuitive decision making an unconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumiulated judgment
Well-structured problems Straitforward, familiar, easily defined problems
Programmed decision A repetative decision that can be handled by a routine approach
Procedure A series of interrelated sequential steps that can be used to respond to a structured problem
Rule An explicit statement that tells managers what they ought or ought not to do
Policy A guide that establishes parameters for making decisions.
Ill-structured problems New problems in which information is ambiguous or incomplete
Nonprogrammed decision a unique decision that requires a custome-made solution
Uncertainty A situation in which a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available
Problem avoider A person who approaches problems by avoiding or ignoring information that points to a problem
Problem solver A person who approaches problems by trying to solve them as they come up
Problem seeker a person who approaches problems by actively seeking out problems to solve or new opportunities to pursue
Directive style A decision-making style that is characterized by a low tolerance for ambiguity and a rational way of thinking
Analytic style a decision-making style that is characterized by a high tolerance for ambiguity and a rational way of thinking
Conceptual style A decision-making style that is characterized by a high tolerance for ambiguity and an intuitive way of thinking
Behavioral style A decision-making style that tis characterized by a low tollerance for ambiguity and an intuitive way of thinking

Last Updated on 03/20/00
By Maria Ribaulo
Email: marbaulo@aol.com

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